IELTS Vocabulary

 

  1. Holidays Vocabulary

  • all-in package/package holiday: a holiday where you purchase the travel and accommodation together
  • breathtaking view: an extremely beautiful view
  • charter-flight: a cheaper form of flying than a scheduled flight
  • check-in desk: the place at the airport where you register for your flight and deposit your luggage
  • departure lounge: where you wait for your flight to be called
  • far-off destination: somewhere a long way away
  • to get away from it all: to take a holiday to escape a busy or stressful lifestyle
  • guided tour: an organised group shown around a place of interest by an expert
  • holiday brochure: a glossy publication with details of holiday packages
  • holiday destination: where you go for a holiday
  • holiday of a lifetime: a special holiday that you are unlikely to repeat
  • holiday resort: a place where lots of people go for a holiday
  • hordes of tourists: crowds of tourists
  • local crafts: objects produced locally
  • long weekend: an extended weekend holiday including Friday or Monday
  • out of season: outside of the main holiday period
  • picturesque village: very pretty village
  • passport control: the place where your passport is checked
  • places of interest: sites of interest to tourists
  • wildlife safari: a holiday, often in Africa, to observe wild animals
  • self-catering: a holiday where you supply your own food
  • short break: a short holiday
  • to go sightseeing:  to look around the tourist sites
  • stunning landscape: extremely beautiful countryside
  • travel agent: a shop that specialises in booking holidays
  • tourist trap: somewhere where too many tourists go
  • youth hostel: a cheap form of accommodation
  1. Relationship Vocabulary

  • to break up: to end a romantic relationship
  • to drift apart: to become less close to someone
  • to enjoy someone’s company: to like spending time with someone
  • to fall for: to fall in love
  • to fall head over heels in love: to start to love someone a lot
  • to fall out with: to have a disagreement and stop being friends
  • to get on like a house on fire: to like someone’s company very much indeed
  • to get on well with: to understand someone and enjoy similar interests
  • to get to know: to begin to know someone
  • to go back years: to have known someone for a long time
  • to have a lot in common: to share similar interests
  • to have ups and downs: to have good and bad times
  • a healthy relationship: a good, positive relationship
  • to hit it off: to quickly become good friends with
  • to be in a relationship: to be romantically involved with someone
  • to be just good friends: to not be romantically involved
  • to keep in touch with: to keep in contact with
  • to lose touch with: to not see or hear from someone any longer
  • love at first sight: to fall in love immediately you meet someone
  • to pop the question: to ask someone to marry you
  • to see eye to eye: to agree on a subject
  • to settle down: to give up the single life and start a family
  • to strike up a relationship:  to begin a friendship
  • to tie the knot: to get married
  • to be well matched: to be similar to
  • to work at a relationship: to try to maintain a positive relationship with someone
  1. Technology Vocabulary

  • to access websites/email: to locate
  • to back up files: to make a copy of files in case of a computer problem
  • to boot up: to start a computer
  • to bookmark a webpage: to mark a webpage for future reference
  • to browse websites: to look at websites
  • a computer buff: an expert computer user
  • to crash: to suddenly stop working
  • to cut and paste: to move text or images from one place in a document to another place
  • a desktop PC: a computer that isn’t portable and remains in situ on a desk
  • digital editing: to edit digital materials like audio or video files
  • download (podcasts): to save a copy of a file from the internet to your own device
  • to enter a web address: to type the address of a website into the address bar of your browser
  • a gadget: a technological tool like a mobile phone or camera
  • to go online: to start using the Internet
  • high-spec (laptop): powerful computer with top quality components
  • Internet security: Internet safety
  • intranet: a network of connected computers within an organisation that is not accessible by unauthorised visitors
  • to navigate a website: to find your way around a website
  • operating system: the software that tells the computer how to work
  • send an attachment: send an email with an accompanying file
  • social media: media used to interact with other people such as Facebook or Twitter
  • to surf the web: to look at a series of websites one after the other
  • a techie: somebody who has an interest in technology
  • to upgrade: to obtain a more powerful or feature-rich computer or piece of software
  • video conferencing: to see and hear people from different locations using the Internet
  • wireless hotspot: a public place where you can access the Internet
  • wireless network: a network where users can access the Internet without the use of fixed cables
  • word processingproducing written texts on a computer
  1. Sports Vocabulary

  • an athletics meeting: an event where various athletics sports are held
  • an athletics track: a running track
  • an away game: a football match played in the opposing teams stadium
  • a brisk walk: a fast walk
  • to do judo: (not go or play)
  • a football fan: someone who likes football
  • a fitness programme: a schedule of activities to keep fit
  • a football match: a game of football
  • a football pitch: the surface on which you play football (as opposed to a stadium, which is the building)
  • a football season: a period in the year when football is played
  • to get into shape: to become fit
  • to go jogging: to run around the streets
  • a home game:  a football match played in the teams own stadium
  • to keep fit: to stay in good physically condition
  • to be out of condition: to not be physically fit
  • a personal best: to achieve the best personal result so far in a sport
  • a personal trainer: a sports coach that helps you on a one-to-one basis
  • to play tennis/football: (not do or go)
  • to run the marathon: to run a distance of 42.195 Kilometres
  • a season ticket: a ticket that gives you entry to most of a team’s home games during the sporting year.
  • to set a record: to achieve the best result in a sport
  • a sports centre: a public building where people can do various sports
  • sports facilities: the equipment and services needed to do a sport
  • a squash/tennis/badminton court: the surface where you play these sports
  • strenuous exercise: exercise that needs a lot of physical effort
  • a strong swimmer: a good swimmer
  • a swimming pool: the place where you swim
  • to take up exercise: to start doing exercise
  • to train hard: to train with a lot of effort
  1. Food Vocabulary

  • to be full up: to eat to the point that you can no longer eat any more
  • to be starving hungry: an exaggerated way of saying you are very hungry
  • to bolt something down: to eat something very quickly
  • to be dying of hunger: an exaggerated way of saying you are hungry
  • to eat a balanced diet: to eat the correct types and amounts of food
  • to eat like a horse: to eat a lot
  • to follow a recipe: to cook a meal using instructions
  • to foot the bill: to pay the bill
  • a fussy eater: somebody who has their own very high standards about what to eat
  • to grab a bite to eat: to eat something quickly (when you’re in a rush)
  • to have a sweet tooth: to enjoy sugary food
  • home-cooked food: food cooked at home from individual ingredients
  • the main meal:  the most important meal of the day, usually eaten in the evening
  • to make your mouth water: to make you feel very hungry for something
  • to play with your food: to push food around the plate to avoid eating it
  • processed food: commercially prepared food bought for convenience
  • a quick snack: to eat a small amount of food between meals
  • a ready meal: see ‘processed food’
  • a slap up meal: a large meal
  • to spoil your appetite: to eat something that will stop you feeling hungry when it’s meal-time.
  • a take away: a cooked meal prepared in a restaurant and eaten at home
  • to tuck into: to eat something with pleasure
  • to wine and dine: to entertain someone by treating them to food and drink
  • to work up an appetite: to do physical work that leads to you becoming hungry
  1. Education Vocabulary

  • to attend classes: to go to classes
  • bachelors degree: an undergraduate course which usually lasts 3-4 years
  • boarding school: a school where pupils live during term time
  • distance learning: a way of studying where tuition is carried out over the Internet or by post
  • face-to-face classes: as opposed to distance learning the traditional way of studying in a classroom with colleagues and a teacher
  • to fall behind with your studies: to progress less quickly than others
  • to give feedback: to offer guidance on a student’s work
  • a graduation ceremony: an event where a successful student receives his or her academic degree
  • higher education: education, usually in a college or university, that is followed after high school or secondary school
  • an intensive course: a course that offers lots of training in order to reach a goal in as short a time as possible
  • to keep up with your studies: to not fall behind
  • to learn something by heart: to memorize it
  • a mature student: a student who is older than average and who has usually returned to education after a period at work
  • masters degree: a period of study which often follows the completion of a bachelors degree or is undertaken by someone regarded as capable of a higher-level academic course
  • to meet a deadline: to finish a job or task in the time allowed or agreed
  • to play truant: to stay away from classes without permission
  • private language school: an independent school run as a business concern
  • public schools: exclusive independent schools in the UK
  • a single-sex school: a school where only boys or girls attend (as opposed to a mixed-sex school)
  • to sit an exam: to take an exam
  • state school: a school paid for by public funds and available to the general public
  • subject specialist: a teacher who has a great deal of knowledge about the subject they teach.
  • to take a year out: to spend a year working or travelling before starting university
  • tuition fees: the money paid for a course of study
  • to work your way through university: to have a paid job whilst studying to support yourself financially
  1. Work Vocabulary

  • to be called for an interview: to be invited to attend an interview
  • to be your own boss: to have your own business
  • a dead-end job: a job with no promotional opportunities
  • to do a job-share: to share the weekly hours of work with another person
  • a good team player: somebody who can work well with other people
  • full-time: the number of hours that people usually work in a complete week
  • a heavy workload: to have a lot of work to do
  • a high-powered job: an important or powerful job
  • holiday entitlement: the number of days holiday allowed
  • job satisfaction: the feeling of enjoying a job
  • manual work: work that requires physical activity
  • maternity leave: time off work given to a woman about to have a baby
  • to meet a deadline: to finish a job by an agreed time
  • a nine-to-five job: a normal job that consists of an 8 hour day (approximately)
  • one of the perks of the job: an extra benefit you get from a job
  • part-time: working less than full-time
  • to run your own business: see ‘to be your own boss’
  • to be self-employed: see ‘to be your own boss’
  • sick leave: time allowed off work when sick
  • to be stuck behind a desk: to be unhappy in an office job
  • to be/get stuck in a rut: to be in a boring job that is hard to leave
  • to take early retirement: to retire early (retire: to reach an age when you are allowed to stop working for a living)
  • temporary work: work done for a limited time only
  • voluntary work: to work without pay
  • to be well paid: to earn a good salary
  • working conditions: the hours, salary and other entitlements that comes with the job
  • to work with your hands: to do manual work
  1. Health Vocabulary

  • ches and pains: minor pains that continue over a period of time
  • to be a bit off colour: to feel a little ill
  • to be at death’s door: (informal) to be very ill indeed
  • to be on the mend: to be recovering after an illness
  • to be over the worst: to have got through the most serious or uncomfortable stage of an illness
  • to be under the weather: (informal) to not feel well
  • a blocked nose: when the nose has excess fluid due to a cold
  • to catch a cold: to get a cold
  • a check-up: a physical examination by a doctor
  • a chesty cough: a cough caused by congestion around the lungs
  • cuts and bruises: minor injuries
  • to feel poorly: to feel ill
  • as fit as a fiddle: to be very healthy
  • to go down with a cold: to become ill
  • to go private: to choose to be treated by commercial healthcare rather than by services offered by the state
  • GP: General Practitioner (family doctor)
  • to have a filling: to have a tooth repaired
  • to have a tooth out: to have a tooth removed
  • a heavy cold: a bad cold
  • to make an appointment: to arrange a time to see the doctor
  • to make a speedy recovery: to recover quickly from an illness
  • to phone in sick: to call work to explain you won’t be attending work due to illness
  • prescription charges: money the patient pays for medicine authorised by a doctor
  • to pull a muscle: to strain a muscle
  • a runny nose: a nose that has liquid coming out of it
  • a sore throat: inflammation that causes pain when swallowing
  1. Books and Films Vocabulary

  • an action movie: a film with fast moving scenes, often containing violence
  • to be engrossed in: to be completely focused on one thing
  • bedtime reading: something to read in bed before you go to sleep
  • to be a big reader: someone who reads a lot
  • to be based on: to use as a modal
  • a box office hit: a financially successful film
  • to be heavy-going: difficult to read
  • a blockbuster: a film that is a big commercial success
  • to catch the latest movie: to see a film that has just come out
  • the central character: the main person in a film or book
  • a classic: of the highest quality
  • to come highly recommended: to be praised by another person
  • couldn’t put it down: wasn’t able to stop reading a book
  • an e-book: a digital book
  • an e-reader: a device for reading e-books
  • to flick through: to look quickly through a book
  • to get a good/bad review: to receive positive or negative feedback
  • to go on general release: when a film can be seen by the general public
  • hardback: a book with a rigid cover (see ‘paperback’ below)
  • a historical novel: a story set in the past
  • a low budget film: a film made with a small amount of money
  • on the big screen: at the cinema
  • a page turner: a book that you want to keep reading
  • paperback: a book with a flexible cover (see ‘hardback’ above)
  • plot: the main events in a film or book
  • to read something from cover to cover: to read a book from the first page to the last
  • sci-fi: science fiction
  • to see a film: to see a film at the cinema (see ‘watch a film’ below)
  • the setting: where the action takes place
  • showings: performances of a film
  • soundtrack: the music that accompanies a film
  • special effects: the visuals or sounds that are added to a film which are difficult to produce naturally
  • to take out (a book from the library): to borrow a book from the library
  • to tell the story of: to outline the details of someone’s life or an event
  • to watch a film: to watch a film on TV (see ‘to see a film’ above)
  1. Accommodation Vocabulary

  • (all the) mod cons: technology at home that makes jobs easier such as a washing machine, dishwasher etc.
  • apartment block: a large building made up of smaller units of apartments
  • back garden: a garden at the rear of the house
  • detached house: a house that is not physically connected to another property
  • to do up a property: to repair an old building
  • dream home: a home you regard as perfect
  • first-time buyer: someone buying a property for the first time, especially when taking out a loan (mortgage)
  • fully-furnished: a rented property with all furniture included
  • to get on the property ladder: to buy a property with the aim of buying another bigger or more expensive one later in life
  • hall of residence: a college or university building where students live
  • home comforts: things that make a home feel comfortable to live in
  • house-hunting: looking for a property to live in
  • house-warming party: a party to celebrate moving into a new home
  • ideal home: a perfect home
  • to live on campus: to live on the university or college grounds
  • mobile home: a home that can be moved by a vehicle or one that has its own engine
  • to move into: to begin to live in a property
  • to own your own home: to have bought the property you live in
  • to pay rent in advance: weekly or monthly rent paid at the beginning of the week or month
  • permanent address: a fixed address
  • property market: the buying and selling of land or buildings
  • to put down a deposit: to pay an amount of money as the first in a series of future payments
  • rented accommodation: property owned by someone else and for which a person pays a fixed amount to live in
  • single room: a room for one person
  • spacious room: a large room
  • student digs: student accommodation
  • the suburbs: a residential area on the edge of towns or cities
  • to take out a mortgage: to borrow a large amount of money, paid back over several years, in order to buy a house
  • terraced house: a house connected on both sides by other properties
  1. Clothes and Fashion Vocabulary

  • to be on trend: to be very fashionable
  • casual clothes: not formal
  • classic style: a simple, traditional style that is always fashionable
  • designer label: a well-known company that makes (often expensive) clothing
  • dressed to kill: wearing clothes that attract admirers
  • to dress for the occasion: to wear clothes suitable for a particular event
  • fashionable: in fashion
  • fashion house: a company that sells (usually expensive) new styles in clothes
  • fashion icon: a person who is famous for their sense of fashion
  • fashion show: an event where modals show off the latest in fashion designs
  • to get dressed up: to put on nice clothes, often to go out somewhere special
  • to go out of fashion: to not be in fashion any more
  • hand-me-downs: clothes that are passed down from older brothers or sisters to their younger siblings
  • to have an eye for (fashion): to be a good judge of
  • to have a sense of style: the ability to wear clothes that look stylish
  • the height of fashion: very fashionable
  • to keep up with the latest fashion: to wear the latest fashions
  • to look good in: to wear something that suits you
  • to mix and match: to wear different styles or items of clothing that aren’t part of a set outfit
  • must-have: something that is highly fashionable and therefore in demand
  • off the peg: clothing that is ready made
  • old fashioned: not in fashion any more
  • on the catwalk: the stage that modals walk along to show off the latest fashions
  • a slave to fashion: someone who always feel the need to wear the latest fashions
  • smart clothes: the kind of clothes worn for a formal event
  • to suit someone: to look good on someone
  • to take pride in one’s appearance: to pay attention to how one looks
  • timeless: something that doesn’t go out of fashion
  • vintage clothes: clothes from an earlier period
  • well-dressed: to be dressed attractively
  1. Personality Vocabulary

  • to be the life and soul of the party: a fun person, someone who is the centre of activity
  • to bend over backwards: to try very hard to help someone
  • broad-minded: prepared to accept other views or behaviours
  • easy-going: relaxed and not easily worried about anything
  • extrovert: an energetic person who likes the company of others
  • fair-minded: to treat people equally
  • fun-loving: to enjoy having fun
  • to hide one’s light under a bushel: to hide one’s talents and skills
  • good company: enjoyable to socialise with
  • good sense of humour: the ability to understand what is funny
  • introvert: someone who is shy
  • laid-back: see ‘easy-going’
  • to lose one’s temper: to suddenly become angry
  • narrow minded: opposite of ‘broad-minded’ (see above)
  • painfully shy: very shy
  • to put others first: to think of others before yourself
  • quick-tempered: to become angry quickly
  • reserved: shy
  • self-assured: confident
  • self-centred: thinks only of oneself
  • self-confident: believes in one’s own ability or knowledge
  • self-effacing: to not try to get the attention of others (especially in terms of hiding one’s skills or abilities)
  • to take after: to be like (often another member of the family)
  • thick-skinned:  not easily affected by criticism
  • trustworthy: can be trusted
  • two-faced: not honest or sincere. Will say one thing to someone to their face and another when they are not present.
  1. Business Vocabulary

  • to balance the books: to not spend more money than you are earning
  • to be self-employed: to work for yourself/to not work for an employer
  • to cold call: to make a sales call to someone without asking them for permission first
  • cut throat competition: when one company lowers its prices, forcing other companies to do the same, sometimes to a point where business becomes unprofitable
  • to do market research: to do research into what potential customers would or wouldn’t buy
  • to draw up a business plan: to write a plan for a new business
  • to drum up business: to try to get customers
  • to earn a living: to earn money
  • to go bust: when a business is forced to close because it is unsuccessful
  • cash flow: the money coming in and going out of a business
  • to go into business with: to join another person to start or expand a business
  • to go it alone: to start your own business
  • to go under: (see ‘to go bust’)
  • to have a web presence: to have a website or social  media profile that showcases your business
  • to launch a product: to start selling and promoting a new product
  • to lay someone off: when a company ends an employee’s contract of employment
  • lifestyle business: a business that is set up to bring in a sufficient income and no more
  • to make a profit: to earn more money than it costs to run the business
  • niche business: a business that serves a small, particular market
  • to raise a company profile: to make more people aware of a business
  • to run your own business: to have a business of your own
  • sales figures: a report of the income a company generates through sales of products or services
  • to set up a business: to start a business
  • stiff competition: strong competition from other companies in the same area of work
  • to take on employees: to employ people
  • to take out a loan: to borrow money
  • to win a contract: when a business gets legally-binding work with an individual or company
  • to work for yourself: (see ‘to be self-employed’)
  1. Physical Appearance Vocabulary

  • to bear a striking resemblance: to look very similar to
  • cropped hair: very short hair
  • disheveled hair: untidy hair
  • to dress up to the nines: to dress very smartly or glamorously
  • fair hair: light-coloured hair
  • to be fair-skinned: light skinned
  • to get done up: to dress smartly
  • to be getting on a bit: to be getting old
  • to go grey: to have hair that is turning grey
  • to be good looking: to be attractive
  • to grow old gracefully: to act in a way that embraces the fact you are getting older
  • to be hard of hearing: to find it difficult to hear
  • in his/her 30s/40s: to be 20/30 something
  • scruffy: dressed untidily
  • to look young for your age: to look younger than you are
  • to lose one’s figure: to have a figure that has lost its toned shape
  • complexion: natural skin colour and texture
  • make up: cosmetics
  • medium height: average height
  • middle-aged: approximately between 45-65
  • to never have a hair out of place: perfectly styled hair
  • to be overweight: to weigh more than is regarded as healthy
  • pointed face: the opposite of a round face
  • shoulder-length hair: hair that comes down to the shoulders and no further
  • slender figure: a figue that is tall and slim
  • slim figure: attractively thin
  • thick hair: a lot of hair
  • to wear glasses: to use spectacles
  • to be well-built: to be muscular
  • to be well-turned out: to look smart
  • youthful appearance: to look young
  1. Town and City Vocabulary

  • boarded up shops: shops that are no longer doing business
  • chain stores: well-known brands with shops in multiple cities
  • to close down: to stop doing business
  • fashionable boutiques: fashionable clothes shops
  • to get around: to travel around
  • high-rise flats: multi-story apartments
  • inner-city: the central part of a city where people live and where conditions are often poor
  • in the suburbs: the outer area of large towns and cities where people live
  • lively bars/restaurants: bars or restaurants with a good atmosphere
  • local facilities: local buildings or services serving the public
  • multi-story car parks: car parks on several floors
  • office block: a large building that contains offices
  • out of town shopping centre/retail park: large shopping centres outside of the town or city
  • pavement cafe: cafes with tables outside on the pavement
  • places of interest: buildings that have a particular interest for visitors
  • poor housing: housing that is not in good condition
  • public spaces: areas in a town or city that are open to the public
  • public transport system:  public vehicles such as buses and trains that operate at regular times on fixed routes
  • residential area: an area where people live
  • run down: old and of a poor standard
  • shopping centre: an area consisting of multiple shops
  • shopping malls: large indoor shopping centres
  • sprawling city: a city that has grown over time and which covers a wide area
  • tourist attraction: a place of interest to tourists
  • traffic congestion: heavy traffic making it difficult to move around a town or city
  • upmarket shops: expensive fashionable shops
  1. Music Vocabulary

  • adoring fans: people who love a particular band or singer
  • background music: music that is played while something else is happening
  • a catchy tune: a song that is easy to remember and makes you want to sing it
  • classical music: music that is regarded as part of a long, formal tradition
  • to download tracks: to obtain music from the Internet
  • to have a great voice: to sing well
  • to go on tour: to go on a planned series of performances around a region or country
  • a huge following: a large number of fans
  • live music: music that is listened to while it is performed (not recorded)
  • live performance: (see live music)
  • a massive hit: a record that sells lots of copies
  • a music festival: music performances at a venue often over several days
  • musical talent: skilled at music
  • to be/sing out of tune: to not be in harmony/to sing the wrong notes
  • a piece of music: an item of music
  • to play by ear: to play without reading the musical notes
  • a pop group: a small group of people who play or sing pop music together
  • to read music: to understand and follow written musical notes
  • a rock band: a group of musicians that play rock music
  • to sing along to: to join in singing
  • a sing-song: to sing informally, often with other people
  • a slow number: a song with a slow tempo
  • to take up a musical instrument: to begin learning a musical instrument
  • taste in music: the music someone likes
  • to be tone deaf: to be unable to distinguish the different notes in music
  1. Weather Vocabulary

  • to be below freezing: below zero degrees Celsius
  • bitterly cold: very cold and unpleasant
  • a blanket of snow: a complete covering of snow
  • boiling hot: very hot (informal)
  • changeable: weather that often changes
  • a change in the weather: when weather conditions change
  • clear blue skies: a sky without clouds
  • to clear up: when clouds or rain disappear
  • to come out (the sun): when the sun appears out of a cloudy sky
  • a cold spell: a short period of cold weather
  • to dress up warm: to wear warm clothes to protect yourself against wintry conditions
  • a drop of rain: a little bit of rain
  • a flash flood: a sudden and severe flood
  • freezing cold: very cold (informal)
  • to get caught in the rain: to be outside when it rains unexpectedly
  • to get drenched: to get very wet
  • heatstroke: a serious condition caused by being too long in hot weather
  • a heatwave: a period of very hot weather
  • heavy rain: intense rainfall
  • long-range forecast: the weather forecast for several days or weeks ahead
  • mild climate: a climate without extreme weather conditions
  • mild winter: a winter that isn’t particularly cold
  • not a cloud in the sky: see ‘clear blue skies’ above
  • to pour down: to rain heavily
  • to be rained off: to be cancelled or postponed due to poor weather
  • sunny spells: short periods of sunny weather
  • thick fog: a dense fog that makes visibility very poor
  • torrential rain: see ‘heavy rain’ above
  • tropical storm: a storm typical of ones that you find in tropical climates
  • weather forecast: a TV/radio programme or section in a newspaper/magazine which predicts weather conditions
  1. Shopping Vocabulary

  • advertising campaign: a series of advertisements to persuade people to buy something
  • big brand names: large well-known companies or product names
  • to be careful with money: to not over-spend
  • carrier bag: bags (usually plastic) supplied by shops
  • customer service: the degree to which customers are treated well
  • to get into debt: to owe money
  • to give someone the hard sell: to put pressure on someone to buy something
  • high street names: well-known shops
  • independent stores: small shops independent of large companies
  • local shops: community shops
  • loyalty card: a card issued by a shop to allow customers to save money on the basis of what they spend
  • must-have product: a product that is very popular that a lot of people want to have
  • to be on a tight budget: to have a limited amount of money to spend
  • to be on commission: to pay someone in relation to the amount they sell
  • a pay in cash: to pay for something using coins or paper money
  • to pay the full price: to pay the full amount for something
  • to pick up a bargain: to buy something much cheaper than the normal price
  • to run up a credit card bill: to owe money on a credit card
  • to shop around: to try different shops to find the best deal
  • shop assistant: the person who serves customers
  • to shop until you drop: to do a lot of shopping
  • to slash prices: to reduce prices a great deal
  • to snap up a bargain: to buy something quickly that is being sold cheaply
  • summer sales: a period in the year when things are sold cheaply
  • to try something on: to see if an item of clothing fits or is suitable
  • to be value for money: to be worth the cost
  • window shopping: to visit a store to look at items without the intention of buying anything
  1. Environment Vocabulary

  • air quality: the cleanliness of the air we breathe
  • to become extinct: to no longer exist
  • to be under threat: to be in danger of becoming extinct
  • climate change: the change in worldwide weather patterns
  • to die out: see ‘to become extinct’
  • endangered species: categories of animals or plants that are in danger of becoming extinct
  • energy conservation: the careful management of energy resources to ensure they last as long as possible
  • environmentally friendly: behaviour and products that do not harm the environment
  • exhaust fumes: the toxic gases given off by vehicles powered by petrol
  • flash floods: floods that happen quickly
  • fossil fuels: energy resources like gas and oil that are produced deep below the ground over millions of years
  • future generations: the people who live after us
  • to get back to nature: to live a life that is closer to nature
  • global warming: the increasing temperature of the world brought about by gases such as carbon dioxide
  • heavy industry: the manufacture of heavy articles and materials in large numbers
  • humanitarian aid: the act of showing support to people struggling to survive
  • impact on: the effect on
  • loss of habitat: the decline in areas of land where animals and plants would normally exist
  • man-made disaster: widespread damage or loss of life brought about by the action of humans
  • natural disaster: an event such as an earthquake,  flood or hurricane which causes widespread damage or loss of life
  • natural environment: the place where animals and plants would normally be found in nature
  • the natural world: the world of nature
  • oil spill: waste usually deposited in the seas and oceans after an accident at sea
  • poaching: to hunt and kill wild animals illegally
  • pollution levels: the amount of toxic waste
  • pressure group: a group of people who try to raise awareness of issues and try to affect the views and actions of people and organisations
  • toxic waste: poisonous, unwanted rubbish often produced by industrial processes
  • wildlife conservation: to protect animals and plants and their habitats
  1. Advertising Vocabulary

  • advertising agency: a company that creates adverts for other companies
  • advertising budget: the amount of money a company decides to spend on advertising
  • brand awareness: how well people know a particular brand
  • brand loyalty: the degree to which people continue to buy from the same brand or company
  • buy and sell: often used to refer to the buying and selling of items between individuals
  • call to action: something that encourages someone to take a particular action, such as making a purchase or clicking a link on a website
  • celebrity endorsement: to have a well-known person promote a product
  • classified ads: small advertisements often put in a newspaper or magazine by individuals
  • to cold call: to call someone with the aim of selling something without them asking you to do so
  • commercial break: the short period during TV programmes when advertisements are shown
  • commercial channel: TV channels that make money from showing advertisements
  • to go viral: to quickly become extremely popular on the Internet through social media
  • junk mail: unwanted promotional leaflets and letters
  • to launch a product: to introduce a new product
  • mailing list: a list of names and contact details used by a company to send information and advertisements
  • mass media: large media outlets like TV, newspapers and magazines
  • niche product: a product that is aimed at a distinct group of people
  • to place an advert: to put an advert somewhere
  • press release: something written by a company for newspapers and magazines and websites to share and publish
  • prime time: the time during the viewing schedule when most people watch TV or listen to a broadcast
  • product placement: to advertise a product by using it as a prop in a TV show or film
  • sales page: a page specifically used to promote a product or service
  • to show adverts: to display adverts on TV
  • social media: websites that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking.
  • spam email: unwanted, promotional email
  • target audience: the people a company want to sell their product or service to
  • word of mouth: recommendations made by individuals to other individuals about a product of service