MOST Important IELTS Reading Test, 31st March
MOST Important IELTS Reading Test, 31st March
IELTS Reading Practice Test – 5, Passage – 2
Reading Passage – 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
SPECIAL OLYMPICS CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION
To be eligible for participation in the Special Olympics an individual with an intellectual disability must agree to observe and abide by the SOC Sports Rules. ‘Mental Retardation’ refers to substantial limitations in present functioning. It is characterised by significantly sub-average intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skill areas: communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure and work. Mental retardation manifests itself before the age of 18. The following four assumptions are essential to the application of the definition:
- Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in communication and behavioural factors.
- The existence of limitations in adaptive skills occurs within the context of community environments typical of the individual’s age-peers and is indexed to the person’s individualised needs for support.
- Specific adaptive limitations often co-exist with strengths in other adaptive skills or other personal capabilities.
- With appropriate support over a sustained period, the life functioning of the person with mental retardation will generally improve.
The term ‘mental retardation’ is a diagnostic term used to describe the condition defined above. In keeping with the current language practised within the field, the term ‘mental retardation’ is no longer commonly used. In its place, if it is absolutely necessary to use a label, i.e. in an educational setting or in a SOC/NCCP Technical Programme, then the term that is in keeping with the current practices is a person with an intellectual disability. Special Olympics was created and developed to give individuals with an intellectual disability the opportunity to train and compete in sports activities. No person shall, on the grounds of gender, race, religion, colour, national origin or financial constraint be excluded for participation in, or be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any programme or activity of Special Olympics. Flexibility is left to the Local, Region/Zone, Chapter and National Special Olympics organisations for determining the eligibility of the participants because of the variety of situations and needs that exist in the many localities where Special Olympics programmes have been and will be instituted. Inclusion is preferred to exclusion when eligibility is in question. Individuals who have both an intellectual disability and multiple disabilities may participate in Special Olympics programmes and competitions.
A. Participation by individuals with Down Syndrome who have Atlantoaxial Instability
There is evidence from medical research that up to 15 percent of individuals with Down Syndrome has a defect in the cervical vertebrae C-1 and C-2 in the neck. This condition exposes Down Syndrome individuals to the heightened possibility of a neck injury if they participate in activities that hyperextend or radically flex the neck or upper spine.
B. SOC requires a temporary restriction of individuals with Down Syndrome from participation in certain activities.
1) Accredited Programmes may allow all individuals with Down Syndrome to continue in most Special Olympics sports training and competition activities. However, such individuals shall not be permitted to participate in sport training and competitions which, by their nature, result in hyperextension, radical flexion or direct pressure on the neck or upper spine. Such sports training and competition activities include: the butterfly stroke and diving start in swimming, diving, pentathlon, high jump, equestrian sports, artistic gymnastics, soccer, alpine skiing and any warm-up exercise placing undue stress on the head and neck.
2) Restriction from participation in the above-listed activities shall continue until an individual with Down Syndrome has been examined (including X-ray views of full extension and flexion of the neck) by a physician who has been briefed on the nature of the Atlantoaxial Instability condition, and the results of such an examination demonstrate that the individual does not have the Atlantoaxial Instability condition.
3) For any individual diagnosed as having Atlantoaxial Instability condition, the examining physician shall notify the athlete’s parents or guardians of the nature and extent of the individual’s condition and such athlete shall be allowed to participate in the activities listed in 1) above only if the athlete submits written certification from two physicians combined with an acknowledgment of the risks signed by the adult athlete or his/her parent or guardian if the athlete is a minor.
4) It is the responsibility of parents/guardians to monitor the individual and take appropriate action if neurological symptoms appear.
Terminology note: the term intellectual disability is used to replace the clinical term of Mental Retardation. Intellectual disability is not a disease, nor should it be confused with mental illness. People with mental disabilities have both a slower rate of learning and a limited capacity to learn. They may also have difficulty managing the ordinary activities of daily living, understanding the behaviour of others, and determining their own appropriate social responses (adaptive behaviour). Children with intellectual disabilities grow into adults with intellectual disabilities; they do not remain ‘eternal children’.
People with intellectual disabilities constitute one of the largest groups of citizens with disabilities. There are an estimated 156 million individuals in the world who have intellectual disabilities. Intellectual disability cuts across lines of race, education, and social and economic background. It can occur in anyone. Hereditary components are known to account for only a fraction of the cases of intellectual disability. There are well over 350 causes of intellectual disability and in three-quarters of the cases, the specific cause is unknown. About 87 percent of all people with intellectual disabilities are mildly afflicted and in many respects are indistinguishable from people who do not have intellectual disabilities.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE – if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE – if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN – if there is no information on this
14. To be eligible to take part in the Special Olympics, the athlete has to be not only less than intellectually capable but must also be lacking in a number of other functions. ………………………
15. People with intellectual disabilities never improve their lives. ………………………..
16. All people with intellectual disabilities need the written permission of a parent or guardian in order to participate. ………………………..
17. Down Syndrome participants often excel in their chosen field of athletic activity. ……………………
18. People with Down Syndrome cannot participate in any swimming events. ……………………….
19. If you have Down Syndrome, your neck may be at risk of damage in certain sports. …………………….
20. Participation in sports helps people with intellectual disabilities to improve their communication and social skills. ………………………..
Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.
Write your answer in box 21-23 on your answer sheet.
21. What were the objectives of the Special Olympics document?
A. to inform the public about what they are to expect from the Special Olympics.
B. to provide information for future candidates
C. to promote awareness in the general population of the plight of disabled people
D.to list the problems intellectually disabled people have
22.What does the passage say about intellectual disability?
A. The majority of cases are inherited.
B. Sufferers of the condition outnumber those with physical disabilities.
C. In most cases, the cause of the condition cannot be determined.
D. It may be determined by race, education, or social and economic background.
23. What word best describes the Special Olympics participation policy?
A. Inconsistent B. Ambiguous C. Controversial D. non-discriminatory
Which THREE of the following facts relating to Down Syndrome are mentioned?
Choose THREE letter A-F.
A. It is thought that about one Down Syndrome person in every seven has Atlantoaxial Instability.
B. A person with Down Syndrome cannot participate in any winter competitions.
C. Down Syndrome sufferers with Atlantoaxial Instability who are minors need permission from a guardian to play soccer.
D. Down Syndrome sufferers are unable to flex the upper spine.
E. Down Syndrome athletes need to wear a neck brace to participate in the Special Olympics.
F. Down Syndrome athletes can take in sports that do not directly affect the neck or spine without any preconditions being fulfilled.
Answers are below >>>>>
17. NOT GIVEN
20. NOT GIVEN