Academic Best IELTS Reading Test 4

Academic Best IELTS Reading Test 4

Reading Passage 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13.

The Secret Schizoid

It is psychiatrist Ralph Klein who was credited with first coining the phrase ‘secret schizoid’. Unlike the overtly schizoid or schizotypal individual who is characterized by aloofness, coldness and indifference, the secret schizoid may present himself as an engaging and interactive individual according to Klein. Thus, Klein argues, there are not one but two distinct schizoid personality types: the overt schizoid and the covert schizoid.

The covert schizoids are difficult, on first glance, to identify. They have erected a convincing defensive barrier of social assuredness engaging with the external reality, superficially at least. This engagement might, to the casual onlooker, appear quite normal. However, if quizzed about their behavior, the covert schizoids will probably reveal that they are still, on a deeper level, withdrawn from the real world. Their outward persona should be viewed, therefore, as little more than an act; the actual personality only being revealed in a safe place within the confines of the schizoid’s own mind; in other words, only ever known to the schizoid themselves.

The covert schizoid, as Fairbairn identified as long ago as 1940, is capable of ‘schizoid exhibitionism’; the schizoids can appear to express a lot of feeling and make impressive social contacts without revealing anything of great significance about themselves. In effect, they disown the ‘character’ they play in public – the very credible front they put up – preserving their real personality intact. What the schizoids fear most is the consequences of emotional intimacy, so by erecting an invisible barrier between their public persona and their real self, the schizoids can avoid ever having to confront this fear and yet lead a relatively active and inclusive lifestyle.

Is the secret schizoid schizophrenic?

Certainly not. Though the two fall within the realms of the same family of illness, the schizophrenic personality disorder is far more destructive, whereas schizoids can depending on the severity of their affliction, function fairly normally and even from relationships with others (based on intellectual, physical, families, occupational or recreational, but most certainly not emotional, activities), and have a relatively fair grasp of reality. Schizophrenics are plagued by hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thinking, all of which is likely to affect their functional capacity in a very negative way. It is true, however, that a family background of schizophrenia leaves one more vulnerable to or likely to develop a schizoid or schizotypal personality.

 The causes of schizoid personality disorder are not clear, but it is theorized that an absence of parental affection and attention during early childhood may encourage the defensive tendencies and fear of intimacy that schizoid’s exhibit. It is also hypothesized that so called secret schizoids are highly intelligent and have learned to develop their act as an effective coping mechanism which allows them to have the superficial relationships they so often crave without compromising that which they hold most valuable – their privacy.

One of the most damaging aspects of life as a secret schizoid can be what is termed ‘depersonalization’; namely, the loss of one’s sense of identity and individuality. Without the feedback which may be gleaned from real interpersonal relationships, the schizoid’s perception of self-perception. Effectively, this leaves the individual feeling a deep sense of emptiness. Their emotional needs continue to go unfulfilled despite the fact that, on the face of it, the secret schizoid is leading an active and engaging lifestyle. The schizoids begin to question who or what they are and, tragically, yearn for the emotional attachment needed to confirm or reaffirm their perceptions of self – an emotional attachment that they are incapable of seeking.

The public perception of the schizoid is misinformed at best. Just because they are outwardly aloof and cold does not mean the secret schizoids are apathetic, dispassionate or indifferent. In actual fact, the schizoid can experience very strong emotions, but does so in both the comfort and discomfort of their own mind; the comfort of not feeling emotionally violated and the discomfort of not being able to share one’s inner fears with another person in order to alleviate them. Schizoids are often extremely sensitive people and their defensive front exists for the sole purpose of protecting themselves from criticism with which they are incapable of coping.

Questions 1-7

Complete the sentences below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

  1. Whereas a typical schizoid might behave in an aloof or indifferent manner, the secret schizoid ends to appear, superficially at least, a very …………………………………………… person, and one who is capable of interacting very successfully with those around him.
  2. The secret schizoid appears socially assured, but this is only a very good ……………………………………., put up make it seem as if he is in tune with what is going on n the real world, whilst at the same time protecting him from it.
  3. The way the secret schizoid behaves in public is only ………………………, the outside world never gets a glimpse of his real self, which remains hidden.
  4. As they are unwilling to try to overcome their innate fear of emotional intimacy, schizoids who wish to lead a full and inclusive barrier between this and their private self.
  5. Schizoids differ from schizophrenics in that they have fairly decent understanding ……………………………………… and are not inclined to suffer from the same incapacitating symptoms, like hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thinking.
  6. A history of schizophrenia in the family leaves a person more ………………………………. To developing schizoid tendencies.
  7. Although it is not known what causes schizoid personality disorders, some suggest a lack of ………………………………………. During the first few years of life is partly to blame.

Questions 8-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given:-

Write

YES                                if the statement agrees with the information

NO                                 if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN                  if there is no information on this

8. People with schizoid personality disorder seem to be much more ‘normal’ than they actually are.    ……………………………………………

9. Often, emotional attachment to another person is exactly what schizoids need to help them from a better picture of who they are; unfortunately, they are not capable of developing this. ……………………………………..

10. The way schizoids are popularly perceived is fairly accurate. ………………………………………………..

11. Most secret schizoids tend to be cold and unemotional people behind their public persona. …………………………………….

12. Schizoids often put up a front as they are very sensitive and easily hurt. ………………………………..

13. Schizoids in general have a higher than average level of intelligence. ……………………………………..

Reading Passage 2:-

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26.

Distance Learning

A. Distance learning is not a recent innovation in education, correspondence courses having been used for over 150 years, but new interactive technologies are providing new opportunities and strategies for teaching at a distance. Several studies have compared face-to-face classrooms to distance classrooms in order to evaluate differences in student performance and quality of instruction. A meta-analysis of these studies showed that distance-learning students performed equally well and some distance courses outperformed their classroom counterparts.

This result has been consistent over many studies across many disciplines; advance in communication technology and innovative methods of delivery of instruction at a distance have challenged the idea that laboratory courses can only be delivered in a face-to-face laboratory setting. In engineering, for example, virtual laboratories have been used to teach thermodynamics, electronic circuits, and other experimental courses as well. Programmes in nursing, engineering, technology and other sciences are beginning to use different technologies and innovative methods to deliver courses via distance-learning methodology in order to reach students in different locations and boost enrollment. A survey of online distance learning programmes revealed a large increase in student enrollment. The availability of distance courses has made it possible for some people to attend college because courses are accessible within their locality or the time of course delivery is convenient for them.

The opportunity for learning has been without its critics who keep a close eye on the quality of instruction, and rightly so as with any form of instructional delivery. Quality issues are a major concern for those who intend to pursue degree programmes via distance learning, especially with the proliferation of distance learning programmes. Although it is difficult for academies to agree on specific standards that constitute quality in distance learning, nonetheless, attributes such as accreditation standards for programmes, evaluating students’ experience, teacher-student interaction, student-to-student interaction, learning resources for the learner, learner assessment and performance, instructional resources for faculty, faculty training, and learner satisfaction are valid criteria. These and many others factors can determine the quality of delivery of instruction in both distance and face-to-face classrooms.

B. Distance Learning Technologies and /innovation in Laboratory Course Delivery

In a selected UK university, five departments that offered laboratory courses in Technology and Engineering via distance used combinations of a variety of instructional technologies. The technologies most used were interactive Microwave TV, (two-way audio and video), compressed video, Internet, CDs, computer software (virtual software), and video tapes. At the selected university in the UK, interviews were conducted on-site with faculty and staff. A wide range of teaching materials, student portfolios, and a secure website were observed. In addition to the internet, CDs and video, the university used the following innovative ways to deliver laboratory courses.

Residential and Summer Schools

Residential and summer schools serve a similar purpose; the difference is the duration. The summer school is one week long and combines labs, lecturers, and problem sessions. In general, these schools provide four key features, providing the opportunity for students to:

  1. Undertake experimental work considered too hazardous for a student working at home.
  2. Undertake lab work using more sophisticated equipment, or equipment too expensive to provide at home.
  3. Undertake assessed lab0work.
  4. Work together with fellow students.

C. Demonstration Laboratory

The demonstration laboratory introduces students to the work they are going to undertake, illustrating how to proceed, how to make particular types of measurements, etc. it also covers topics considered too dangerous for students or situations in which the equipment is not available at the residential school. Many of these demonstrations are recorded on video to control both the process taught and the quality of the teaching across numerous groups of students at different levels.

D. Support Services Provided to Faculty and Students Engaged in Distance Learning

All the departments that offer distance learning courses offer support services to students and faculty. The support services include e-mail systems, graduate assistance, course websites, proctor, telephone conferencing, electronic library materials, and instructional designers to work with faculty to design and develop courses. At the selected university in the UK, interviews with instructional designers and faculty revealed the significant role played by instructional designers. Although they are not the content experts, on how information is presented on a website or the format in which the information is presented. The purpose is to maintain a standard format and quality in print materials, including electronic resources. The selected university in the UK also provides a support service to faculty that is unique from other institutions in this study: staff tutors who are regionally based to provide the link between the university faculty and students with the regions. The staff tutors have a key role in quality assurance, especially in facilitating effective teaching of the university faculty’s courses, and are responsible for the selection, monitoring and development of part-time Associate Lecturers. They contribute to faculty research and the development and presentation of courses. The staff tutors are highly qualified in their fields, and such as, bridge the distance gap between the university faculty and students at different locations.

E. The UK University, by using innovative strategies such as the Residential and Summer Schools, Field trips and Demonstration Laboratories in combination with new technologies, is able to teach all its laboratory courses via distance learning to its nearly 200,000 students within and outside the UK. Distance learning is not meant to replace a face-to-face classroom, but it is one major way to make education more accessible to society. As advances in communication and digital technology continue, residential or demonstration labs may someday be replaced with comparable experience provided through distance education.

Questions 14 – 18

Reading Passage 2 has five sections A-E.

Which section contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-E in spaces 14-18 below.

NB some sections may be used more than once.

14. One aspect of the course is that students can gain first-hand experience in a working environment and on educational excursions.                ……………………………………………….

15. Where the instruction takes place is not a critical factor in students’ achievements.                     ……………………………………………..

16. This method of instruction is not designed to replace traditional teaching techniques. …………………………………………….

17. In the future, the use of technology may mean students will not have to attend practical instruction sessions.            ………………………………………………………

18. Attending laboratory courses allows students to benefit from the use of expensive equipment not otherwise available to them.              ……………………………………

Question 19-22

Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.

19. One purpose of the summer school is to

A. Encourage students to work individually.

B. Enable students to be assessed directly.

C. Allow students to undertake simple experiments.

D. Familiarize students with laboratory equipment.

20. Instructional designers advise faculty on the

A. Course content.

B. Support services for students.

C. Suitability of library material.

D. Visual display of coursework.

21. Staff tutors are responsible for the

A. Monitoring of students’ progress.

B. Suitability of course for students’ needs.

C. Appointment of certain teaching staff.

D. Training of all teaching staff.

22. With the increasing number of distance-learning courses,

A. It has been difficult to find suitable tutors.

B. Problems arise with the timing of course delivery.

C. The standard of teaching has been become an issue.

D. Student-to-teacher interaction is no longer relevant.

Questions 23-26

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

In spaces 23-26 below, write

YES                         if the statement agrees with the writer’s claims

NO                         if the statement contradicts the writer’s claims

NOT GIVEN          if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

23. Many students may find the lack of student-to-student interaction a disadvantage to this method of study.                      …………………………………………………….

24. The main difference between residential and summer courses is the length of the courses they offer.                       ……………………………………………..

25. At the UK university, difficulties exist where the teaching of science subjects involves laboratory experiments.           ……………………………………………..

26. Instructional designers receive very high salaries.          …………………………………………

Reading passage 3

You should spend 20 minutes on question 27-40.

Wittgenstein on Freud

Ludwig von Wittgenstein has justly been regarded as one of the major philosophers of the twentieth century, especially for his writings on the philosophy of language and logic. His work on psychoanalysis and criticism of his fellow Viennese, Sigmund Freud, have, however, been generally overlooked.

Wittgenstein is both highly critical of and at the same time greatly admiring of Freud’s work. Perhaps it would be fairer to say that he is not critical so much of psychoanalysis as of Freud’s claims for it. For Freud, it was essential that his work be regarded as science: that he had developed a new branch of medicine based on scientific principles, having established causal relationships between behavior in childhood and that in adulthood. Wittgenstein, while accepting the usefulness of Freud’s method, disputes that these relationships are casual, therefore denying Freud’s theories scientific validity.

In casual relationship we can at least imagine contradictory cases. For example, I can imagine placing a pan of water on a hot stone and water freezing (of course I do not expect it to happen, and would be very surprised if it did). With Freud’s theory, however, this is not the case. One of the central planks of this theory is the pursuit of hidden meaning in such things as dreams, work of art, even language (the famous ‘Freudian slip). Take the example of dreams. For Freud these are all sexual wish-fulfillment. While is clear that some are, clearly some at least appear not to be. Freud, however, will not accept any contradiction to his theory, and argues that in these cases the sexual element is camouflaged, or even repressed. This is a stranger notion, for how can a dream fulfill a wish if the desire is so disguised that the dreamer does not even recognize it? More importantly, if under no circumstances will Freud allow his hypothesis to be contradicted, how can we verify it? It therefore behoves us to recongnise that, despite his assertions, Freud’s theories are not casual hypotheses, and thus not scientific.

One might ask, given this analysis, how Freud came to make this mistake, or rather why he believed that his explanations were casual. It is confusion between what we might call the ‘depth-grammar’ and the ‘surface-grammar’ of certain sentences. If we say ‘the window broke because the stone hit it’ we are outlining a casual relationship between the stone hitting the window and the window breaking, this being designated by the word ‘because’. However, if we say ‘he hit her because he was angry’, whilst it may appear that the word ‘because’ performs the same function, this is not the case. The similarity lies only on the surface; if we look at the depth-grammar we see that in the first sentences ‘because’ denotes a casual relationship, whereas in the second we are rather talking in terms of motivations, reasons and other non-casual terms. Freud’s mistakes, therefore, is to believe that both types of sentences are similar: he confuses the surfaces-grammar.

Despite all this confusion, I have stated that Wittgenstein was highly appreciative of Freud’s work and this because he essentially reformulates what Freud was trying to do. Freud believed that he was explaining people’s behavior, while Wittgenstein suggests that he is re describing it. To him, Freud is providing a ‘picture’ of human behavior which may enable us to make certain connections that other ways of looking would not reveal, and by showing these patterns and connections the method may well have therapeutic value. In the case, although the ‘picture’ described by Freud’s method is not a true one (for by Wittgenstein’s arguments it cannot be), nevertheless it is unique, enabling the patient to have insights into their problems that no other method could provide.     

Questions 27-32

Do the statements below agree with the information in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 27-32, write

YES                    if the statement agrees with the information in the passage

NO                     if the statement contradicts the information in the passage

NOT GIVEN      if there is no information about the statement in the passage

Example:  Wittgenstein was from Vienna.

Answer: Yes.

27. Wittgenstein was a great moral philosopher.

28. Wittgenstein owes the high regard in which he is held, in part, to his work on the philosophy of language and logic.

29. Wittgenstein totally admired Freud’s work without any reservation.

30. Wittgenstein supports Freud’s claims as to the casual relationship between childhood behavior and that in adulthood.

31. Freud’s theory on casual relationships enjoys considerable support in spite of Wittgenstein’s objections.

32. The writer agrees with Wittgenstein that Freud’s theory re casual hypotheses is not scientific.

Questions 33-40

Complete the text below. Use one word only from the passage for each blank space. Write your answers in boxes 33-40 on your answer sheet.

You may use a word once only.

Example: The writer asks how Freud came to make this ……………………………………….

Answer: Mistake.

Despite …………….. 33 ………………. confusion regarding surface-grammar, Wittgenstein held his work in high regard.

Freud believed that he was ……………………..34 ………………………… people’s behavior, while to Wittgenstein he was merely ………………………….. 35…………………………. it. In other words, Wittgenstein believes that Freud provides a ………………………… 36…………………….. of human behavior, which allows us to look at things in different ways. This, according to Wittgenstein may be ……………….. 37………………… .

According to the writer, although Freud’s ‘picture’ is not genuine, still it is ………………………. 38 ……………. .  It allows the ………………….. 39 ………………. to have …………………. 40 ……………… into his or her problems.

Answers are below.

Academic Best IELTS Reading Test 4

20th February, IELTS Daily Task
Academic Best IELTS Reading Test 4

Answers:-

Academic Best IELTS Reading Test 4

  1. Engaging
  2. Defensive barrier
  3. An act
  4. Public persona
  5. Of reality
  6. Vulnerable
  7. Parental affection/parental attention
  8. YES
  9. YES
  10. NO
  11. NO
  12. YES
  13. NOT GIVEN
  14. B
  15. A
  16. E
  17. E
  18. B
  19. B
  20. D
  21. C
  22. C
  23. NOT GIVEN
  24. YES
  25. NO
  26. NOT GIVEN
  27. NOT GIVEN
  28. YES
  29. NO
  30. NO
  31. NOT GIVEN
  32. YES
  33. Freud’s
  34. Explaining
  35. Redescribing.
  36. Picture.
  37. Therapeutic.
  38. Unique
  39. Patient
  40. Insight(s)

Academic Best IELTS Reading Test 4

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