READING PASSAGE -1
Should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-14, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below
- Job satisfaction is how content an individual is with his or her job. Scholars and human resource professionals generally make a distinction between affective job satisfaction and cognitive job satisfaction. Affective job satisfaction is the extent of pleasurable emotional feelings individuals have about their jobs overall, and is different to cognitive job satisfaction which is the extent of individual’s satisfaction with particular facets of their jobs, such as pay , pension arrangements, working hours, and numerous other aspects of their jobs.
- At its most general level of conceptualization, job satisfaction is simply how content an individual is with his other job. Affective job satisfaction is usually defined as a one dimensional subjective construct representing an overall emotional feeling individuals have about their job as a whole. Hence, affective job satisfaction for individuals reflects the degree of pleasure or happiness their job in general induces. Cognitive job satisfaction is usually defined as being a more objective and logical evaluation of various facets of a job. As such, cognitive job satisfaction can be dimensional if it comprises evaluation of just one aspect of a job, such as pay or maternity leave, or multidimensional if two or more facets of a job are simultaneously evaluated .
- Environmental factors: one of the most significant aspects of an individual’s work in a modern organization concerns the management of communication demands that he or she encounters on the job. Demands can be characterized as a communication load. Individuals in an organization can experience communication over-load and communication under-load which can affect their level of job satisfaction. Communication overload can occur when “an individual receives loads of messages in a short period of time which can result in unprocessed information or when an individual faces more complex messages that are more difficult to process . “Due to this process, “given an individual’s style of work and motivation to complete the task, when more inputs exist than outputs, the individual perceives a condition of overload which can be positively or negatively related to job satisfaction. In comparison, communication under load can occur when messages or inputs are sent below the individual’s ability to process them. “According to the ideas of communication over- load and under- load, if an individual does not receive enough input on the job or is unsuccessful in processing these inputs, the individuals are more likely to become dissatisfied, aggravated, and unhappy with their work which leads to a low level of job satisfaction.
- Superior-subordinate communication: superior-subordinate communication is an important influence on a job satisfaction in the workplace. The way in which subordinates perceive a supervisor’s behavior can positively or negatively influence job satisfaction. Communication behavior such as facial expression, eye contact, vocal expression, and body movement is crucial to the superior-subordinate relationship. Nonverbal messages play a central role in interpersonal interactions with respect to impression formation, deception, attraction, social influence and emotional. Individuals who dislike and think negatively about their supervisors are less willing to communicate or have motivation to work whereas individuals who like and think positively of their supervisors are more likely to communicate and are satisfied with their job and work environment. A supervisor who uses nonverbal immediacy, friendless and open communication lines is more likely to receive positive feedback and high job satisfaction from a subordinate.
- Strategic employee recognition: employee recognition is not only about gifts and points. It’s about changing the corporate culture in order to meet goals and initiatives and most importantly to connect most important program not only to improve employee retention and motivation but also to positively influence the financial situation. “The vast majority of companies want to innovate, coming up with new products, business models and better ways of doing things. However, innovation is not so easy to achieve. A CEO cannot just order it, and so it will be. You have to carefully manage an organization so that, over time, innovates will emerge.
- Individual factors: mood and emotions from the affective element of job satisfaction. Moods tends to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin, while emotions are often more intense, short lived and have a clear object or cause. Positive and negative emotions were also found to be significantly related to overall job satisfaction. It was found that suppression of unpleasant emotions decrease job satisfaction and amplification of pleasant emotions increases job satisfaction. There are two personality factors related to job satisfaction, alienated are more likely to experience job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational commitment. The characteristics like high self esteem, self efficacy and low neuroticism are also related to job satisfaction.
1. Content – satisfied
2. Facet – feature
3. Numerous – plentiful
4. Induce – bring on
5. Encounters – come across
6. Perceive – recognize
7. Aggravated – provoked
8. Deception – trick
9. Initiative plan
10. Retention -withholding
12. Emerge – come out
13. Intense – strong
14. Suppression – control
15. Amplification – increase
16. Alienation – unfriendliness
17. Self – esteem – self respect
18. Impinge on – affect
Reading passage 1 has six paragraphs, A-F, which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-F , in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
- Explanation of categories of job satisfaction.
- How emotions and temper affect job satisfaction.
- How letters, e-mail, phone calls impinge on job satisfaction.
- Novelty recognition is also demanded by the employees for job happiness.
- How inspirational relation of boss and employee influence job liking.
Choose only one word from the passage for each answer. Write your answers, in boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet.
In the modern organization, an employee has to meet the requirement of management of 6…………………….individuals can familiarize over-load and under-load communication which influence their 7……………………….. of job happiness. Communication over-load happens when an employee receives plentiful 8…………………….in less time whose outcome is unprocessed information. The individual 9…………………. A situation of over-load. On the other hand –load takes place when inputs are lesser than the 10………………… of individual to process.
Write TRUE, FALSE , OR NOT GIVEN for the following statements in boxes 11-14 on your answer sheet.
TRUE if the statement agrees with information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the given information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this at all
11. People who despise and feel negative about their boss have less inspiration for work
12. Gifts and points play a key role in enhancing job satisfaction among employees.
13. Employees who are more estranged are more likely to experience job likings.
14. Unfriendliness and self-respect hardly matter for job satisfaction among employees in a job.
READING PASSAGE -2
You should spend about 20 minutes on questions 14-26, which are based on reading passage 2 below .
Therapeutic jurisprudence is the study of the role of the law as a therapeutic agent. It examines the law’s impact on emotional life and on psychological well-being, and the therapeutic and antithera-peutic consequences of the law. It is most applicable to the fields of mental health law, criminal law, javelins law and family law.
The general aim of therapeutic jurisprudence is the humanizing of the law and addressing the human, emotional and psychological side of the legal process. It promotes the perspective that the law is a social force that produces behaviors and consequences. Therapeutic jurisprudence strives to have laws made or applied in a more therapeutic way so long as other values, such as justice and due process, can be fully respected. It is important to recognize that therapeutic jurisprudence does not itself suggest that therapeutic goals should trump other goals. It does not support paternalism or coercion by any means. It is simply a way of looking at the law in a richer way, and then bringing to the table some areas and issues that previously have gone unnoticed. Therapeutic jurisprudence simply suggests that we think about the therapeutic consequences of law and see if they can be factored into the processes of law-making, layering and judging.
The law can be divided into the following categories: (1) legal rules,(2) legal procedures, such as hearings and trials and (3) the roles of legal actors-the behavior of judges, lawyers and of therapists acting in a legal context. Much of what legal actors do has an impact on the psychological well-being or emotional life of persons affected by the law, for example, in the dialogues that judges have with defendants or that lawyers have with client. Therefore therapeutic jurisprudence is especially applicable to this third category.
Therapeutic jurisprudence is a relatively new phenomenon. In the early days of law, attitudes were very different and efforts were focused primarily on what was wrong with various sorts of testimony. While there were good reasons for that early emphasis, an executive’s focus on what is wrong, rather than also looking at what is right and how these aspects could be further developed, is seriously short-sighted. Therapeutic jurisprudence focuses attention on this previously under-appreciated aspect, encouraging us to look very hard for promising developments, and to borrow from the behavioral science literature, even when this literature has nothing obviously to do when the law. It encourages people to think creatively about how promising developments from other fields might be brought into the legal system. Recently, as a result of this multidisciplinary approach, certain kinds of rehabilitative programs have begun to emerge that look rather promising. One type of cogitative behavioral treatment encourages offenders to prepare relapse prevention plans which require them to think through the chain of events that lead to criminality. These reasoning and rehabilitation type programmers teach offenders cognitive self-change, to stop and think figure out consequences, to anticipate high-risk situations, and learn to avoid or cope with them. These programmers, so far, seem to be reasonably successful.
From a therapeutic jurisprudence standpoint, the question is how these programmers might be brought into the law. In one obvious sense, these problem-solving, reasoning and rehabilitation-type programmers’ can be made widely available in correctional and community settings. A way of linking them even more to the law, of course, would be to make them part of the legal process itself. The suggestion here is that if a judge or parole board becomes familiar with these techniques and is about to consider someone for probation, the judge might say, I’m going to consider you but I want you to come up with a preliminary relapse prevention plan that we will use as a basis for discussion. I want you to figure out why I should grant you probation and why I should be comfortable that you’re going to succeed. In order for me to feel comfortable, I need to know what you regard to be high-risk situations and how you’re going to avoid them or cope with them.’
If that approach is followed, courts will be promoting cognitive self-change as part and parcel of the sentencing process itself. The process may operate this way; an offender would make a statement like ‘I realize I mess up on Friday nights; therefore, I promise that I will stay at home on Friday nights.’ Suddenly, it is not a judge imposing something on the offender. It’s something that the offender has come up with him or herself, so he or she should think it is fair. If a person has a voice in his rehabilitation, then he is more likely to feel a commitment to it, and with that commitment, presumably, compliance will increase dramatically.
Complete the notes below.
Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.
| NOTES : Therapeutic jurisprudence Therapeutic jurisprudence: therapeutic and 15……………………………………. Consequences Of the law. |
Goal : The 16………………………. Of the law, But NOT at the expense of 17………………… and due process
Applicable to : Especially applicable to the role of legal 18……………………………………….. such as judges and lawyers
Therapeutic jurisprudence = new attitude It asks people to seek out 9…………………………………..developments, not problems.It urges people to think 20……………………………. And borrow from other fields.
Complete the sentences.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
| 21. One aspect of cognitive behavioral treatment includes the preparation of ………………by offenders. |
22. The treatment requires offenders to consider the ……………………………………… That led to a crime being committed.
23. Treatment programmers’ encourage offenders to recognize………………… Before they happen, and know what to do in case they do happen.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading passage 2?
In spaces 24-26 below, write
|TRUE if the statements agrees with the information|
False if the statement contradicts the information
Not given if there is no information on this
| 24. The use of rehabilitative programs has been proved to greatly …………………………………………. Reduce the chance of a criminal re-offending. |
25. Therapeutic jurisprudence aims to make cognitive behavioral……………………………… Treatment a part of the legal process itself.
26. Offenders might be encouraged by judges to take part in deciding ……………………………… What their punishment should be.
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on question 27-40, which are based on reading passage 3 below.
Population growth sentencing millions to hydrological poverty
At a time when drought in the United States, Ethiopia, and Afghanistan is in the news, it is easy to forget that far more serious water shortages are emerging as the demand for water in many countries simply outruns the supply. Water tables are now falling on every continent; literally scores of countries are facing water shortages as the tables fall and wells go dry. We live in a water- challenged world, one that is becoming more so each year as 80 million additional people stakes their claims to the earth’s water resources. Unfortunately, nearly all the projected 3 billion people to be added over the next half century will be born in countries that are already experiencing water shortages. Even now, many in these countries lack enough water to drink, to satisfy cleanliness needs, and to produce food.
By 2050, India is projected to have added 519 million people and china 211 million. Pakistan is projected to have added nearly 200 million, going from 151 million at present to 348 million. Egypt, Iran and Mexico are slated to increase their populations by more than half by 2050. In these and other water-short countries, population growth is sentencing millions of people to hydrological poverty, a local form of poverty that is difficult to escape.
Even with today’s 6 billion people, the word has a huge water deficit. Using data on over-pumping for china, India Saudi Arabia, north Africa , and the United states, Sandra postal, author of pillar of sand: can the irrigation miracle last ? Reports the annual depletion of aquifer to be at 160 billion cubic meters or 160 billion tons. Using the rule of thumb that it takes 1,000 tons of water to produce 1 ton of grain, this 160- billion-ton water deficit is equal to 160 million tons of grain or one-half the US grain harvest.
Average world grain consumption is just over 300 kilograms per person per annum-one third of ton per person per year- and grain reserves directly or indirectly feed 480 million people globally. Stated otherwise, 480 million of the world’s 6 billion people are being fed with grain produced with the unsustainable use of water.
Over-pumping is a new phenomenon, one largely confined to the last half century. Only since the development of powerful diesel- and electrically-driven pumps have we had the capacity to pull water out of aquifer faster than it is replaced by precipitation. Some 70 percent of the water consumed worldwide, including underground, is used for irrigation, while some 20 percent is used by the industry and 10 percent for residential purposes. In the increasingly intense competition for water among sectors, agriculture almost always loses. The 1,000 tons of water used in India to produced 1 ton of wheat worth perhaps $200 can also be used to expand industrial output by easily $10,000, or 50 times as much. This ratio helps explain why, in the American west, the scale of irrigation water rights by farmers to cities is an almost daily occurrence.
In addition to population growth, urbanization and industrialization also expand the demand for water. As developing country villagers, traditionally reliant on the village well, move to urban high-rise apartment buildings with indoor plumbing, their residential water use can easily triple. Industrialization takes even more water than urbanization. Rising affluence in itself generates additional demand for water. As people move up the food chain, consuming more beef, pork, poultry, eggs and dairy products, they use more grain. A US diet rich in livestock products requires 800 kilograms of grain per person a year, whereas diet in India, dominated by a starchy food staple such as rice, typically needs only 200 kilograms. Using four times as much grain per person a year, whereas diets in India, dominated by a starchy food staple such as rice, typically need only 200 kilograms. Using four times as much grain per person means using four times as much water.
Once a localized phenomenon, water scarcity is now crossing national borders via the international grain trade. The world’s fastest growing grain import market in north Africa and middle East; an area that includes Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt and Iran. Virtually every country in the region is simultaneously experiencing water shortages and rapid population growth.
As the demand for the water in the region’s cities and industries increases, it is typically satisfied by diverting water from irrigation. The loss in the food production capacity is then often offset by importing grain from abroad. Since one ton of grain represents 1,000 tons of water, this becomes the most efficient way to import water.
Last year, Iran imported 7 million tons of wheat, eclipsing Japan to become the world’s leading wheat importer. This year, Egypt is also projected to move ahead of Japan. Iran and Egypt have nearly 70 million people each. Both populations are increasing by more than a million a year and both are pressing the limits of their water supplies.
The water required producing the grain and other foodstuffs imported into North Africa and the Middle East last year was roughly equal to the annual flow of the Nile River. Stated otherwise, the fast growing water deficit of this region is equal to another Nile flowing into the region in the form of imported grains.
It is now often said that future wars in the region will more likely be fought over water than oil. Perhaps, but given the difficulty in winning a water war, the competition for water seems more likely to take place in the world grains markets. The countries that will “win” in this competition will be those that are financially strongest, not those that are militarily strongest. The world water deficit grows larger with each other, making it potentially more difficult to manage. If we decided abruptly to stabilize water tables everywhere by simply pumping less water, the world grain harvest would fall by some 160 million tons, or 8 percent, and grain prices would go off the chart. If the deficit continues to widen, the eventual adjustment will be even greater.
Unless governments in water-short countries act quickly to stabiles their populations and to raise water productivity, their water shortages may soon become food shortages. The risk is that the growing number of water short countries, including population giant’s china and India, with rising grain –imports needs will overwhelm the exportable supply in food surplus countries, such as the United States, Canada Australia. This in turn could destabilize world grain markets. Another risk of delay in dealing with the deficit is that some low-income, water –short countries will not be able to afford to import needed grain, trapping millions of their people in hydrological poverty; thirsty and hungry, unable to escape.
Although there are still some opportunities for developing new resources, restoring the balance between water uses and developing a sustainable supply will depend primarily on demand side initiative, such as stabilizing population and raising water productivity. Governments can no longer separate population policy from the supply of water. And just as the world turned to raising land productivity a half century ago when the frontiers of agriculture settlement disappeared, so it must now turn to raising water productivity. The first step toward this goal is to eliminate the water subsidies that foster inefficiency. The second step is to raise the price of water to reflect its cost. Shifting to more water- efficient technologies, more water-efficient forms of animal protein offers a huge potential for raising water productivity. These shifts will move faster if the price of water more closely reflects its real value.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in reading passage 3?
In spaces 27-32, write
|TRUE if the statement agrees with the writer’s claims|
FALSE if the statement contradicts the writer’s claims
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
| 27. Vegetarians drink less water than meat eaters. …………………………………………………. |
28. A typical Indian diet requires less gain than a typical USA diet. …………………………………………………..
29. Growing grain uses more water than raising beef. ………………………………………………..
30. people that move from the country to city may increase …………………………………………………… Their water consumption considerably.
31. Future conflicts will be ought as much over food as they will over oil. …………………………………………………..
32. Egypt and Japan also import 7 million tons of oil annually. …………………………………………………..
Reading passage 3 has 13 paragraphs A-M.
Which paragraphs contains information about the following threats to water supplies?
Write the correct letter A-M in spaces 33-36 below.
| 33. The volume of water that is needed for irrigation in grain production. Paragraph ………………… |
34. Over-pumping our underground water supplies. Paragraph …………………
35. Population growth will be responsible for a new type of Paragraph ………………… Water-related poverty.
36. Industrialization demands greater water supplies. Paragraph………………….
Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.
37. Our water supply is running low because
A. grain is now exported globally.
B. the world’s population is increasing rapidly.
C. more people are moving to cities.
D. people waste water foolishly.
38. People who have a high-meat diet cause more water to be used because
A. it takes more grain to feed livestock than it does a human.
B. the industrial processes to produce meat require a lot of water.
C. livestock drink a lot of water.
D. packaging of meat produces goes through an intensive washing process.
39. What would reduce the use of water without adversely affecting the food supply?
A. growing fewer crops.
B. increasing water subsidies
C. diverting water from irrigation.
D. falling population levels
40. If there is a water war, who will win?
A. the driest countries
B. the richest countries
C. the countries that are more forceful
D. the countries that have the biggest population.
Reading passage: 1
- NOT GIVEN
21. Relapse prevention plans
22. Chain of events
23. High-risk situations
24. Not given
Reading passage 3
27. Not given
32. Not given