BEST IELTS Academic Reading Test 25
ACADEMIC READING TEST 25 – PASSAGE – 3
ACADEMIC READING TEST 25
READING PASSAGE 3
Bismarck : A Master o political and diplomatic Juggling
Otto von Bismarck’s rise up the political and diplomatic was swift and relentless. Having entered parliaments in 1847, he always harbored lofty ambitions, chief among them perhaps being the reunification of Germany into one strong centrally state though his own personal thirst for power was arguably even stronger. On becoming Prussian chancellor he set about fulfilling his ambitions and in doing so proved himself to be a diplomat of some considerable skill victory in the Austro- Prussian war effectively ended Austria as a factor in Germany affairs his political and military juggling was taken step further when he orchestrated a situation where France declared war in Germany in 187, making the French seen responsible for a conflict he had always indented to create. And following another the French the Germany empire was proclaimed in January 1871.
In little more than nine years, Bismarck realized his lifelong ambition, steering Germany to reunification. and by defeating Austria and France in quick succession, he also created a power vacuum on mainland Europe which he was determined to fulfill himself. this was another opportunity for Bismarck to demonstrate his political and diplomatic cunning. he set about creating a dictatorial Germany in which he as head of the Prussian parliament would automatically become chancellor of the German empire. he drafted a new Germany constitution to suit his own purposes and, despite maintaining a veneer of democracy, the German parliament was effectively powerless to oppose him. Province that were slow to support him were enticed with bribes and before long the Germany empire was his to command.
It is testament to his political skills that Bismarck achieved so much so quickly. At the point in his colorful politics career he did appear , for all intents and purpose, a master of political and diplomatic juggling. But challenges lay ahead and Bismarck’s next target was the Catholic church, which he deemed too power full and a threat to hid politics domains. He proceeded to enact a series of laws which seriously eroded the power of the church. However his plans backfired and Bismarck was forced to make a politics u-turn. Though here again, he somehow managed to save face. The damage to his reputation was limited and indeed by the laye1870s he had even managed to win over the church whose support he now needed.
Bismarck viewed the growing popularity of the Socialist Democratic Party as a serious threat. He bided his time and used the attempted assassination of the Kaiser as an excuse to attack the socialist in 1878, blaming for the attempt on the Kaiser’s life. He immediately arrested the leaders, banned party meeting and suppressed socialist newspaper. But despite his efforts to destroy the socialist movement, its popularity had trebled by 1890. Just as his interventions with the church had no gone as planned , Bismarck once again failed to achieve his objective; though, to his credit, he held on to power.
His domestic position was relatively secure after 1871 and Bismarck devoted a lot of his time to foreign policy. Having used war to unite Germany and make her great, Bismarck now believes that his ambitions were best served by peace. His plans to isolate hostile diplomatic skills. The Dreikaiserbund agreement of 1873 between Germany, Austria- Hungry and Russia was first step to towards doing just that. The Balkan crises, a conflict involving Russia and Austria-Hungry, severely tested his diplomatic credentials, but his answer was to offer himself as an ‘honest broker’ to help resolve the dispute. The subsequent Congress of Berlin which he hosted was an outstanding success and only served to reinforce Bismarck’s reputation as a shrewd diplomat. Bismarck’s foreign policy would continue in this vein throughout his reign as Chancellor. He built up strategic alliances with the big power, Russia, Italy and Austria- Hungry, in the hope that he could keep his main threats, France and Britain, isolated.
In, truth, Bismarck reign as chancellor of the German empire does seem to confirm him as a shrewd and wily diplomat were broadly achieved. Does this mean his so called juggling was a success? Perhaps, but Bismarck left a less than perfect legacy. He created a mate say in domestic affairs and enjoyed fat too much power should be choose to wield it. This meat that the future of the empire largely depended on the strength and character of just one man, the Kaiser. A weak Kaiser would be disastrous for the country’s welfare, and so it would soon prove. In the final analysis, Bismarck put Germany back on the map again as a great power during his reign, but we should not forget that he created the politics situation that would be the downfall of his country in the end. His political and diplomatic juggling, therefore, simply cannot be considered a total success.
Choose the correct answer A,B, C and D.
Write the correct letter in the boxes.
27 In little more than nine years as Prussian chancellor Bismarck had
A succeed in reuniting germany and defeating Austria and france
B divided his country and lost two wars
C success in suppressing the socialist party
D abolished the parliament
28 What happened after Bismarck enacted laws to weaken the Catholic Church.
A He changed his policy and made a church an ally
B the church’s influence weakened
C France declare war on Germany
D he didn’t succeed and his influence was severely weakened
29 what had happened to the society party in 1890?
A it had take power from Bismarck
B it had lost its influence
C its popularity had risen three- fold
D it become very powerful in the parliament
30 After reuniting Germany what was Bismarck’s belief on foreign policy?
A He needed to wage war with all countries that posed a military threat
B Preserving the peace and isolating France would benefit him
C Germany needed to befriend France to form a powerful alliance
D He wanted to form an alliance with Britain and France
31 the article conclude that Bismarck
A made few mistakes and left a positive legacy
B was not all successful
C was always tolerant of those who had different opinions
D was not actually a master of political juggling
Do the following statement agree with the information given in reading passage 3
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
32 The Congress of Berlin was a great personal success for Bismarck
33 Bismarck refused to build alliances with Russia or Austria
34 Bismarck considered his reign as German chancellor a failure
Reading passage has six paragraph A-F.
Choose the correct heading A-F, from the list of heading below
Write a correct number I-IX in space 35-40
35) Paragraph A
36) Paragraph B
37) Paragraph C
38) Paragraph D
39) Paragraph E
40) Paragraph F
List of headings
I A critical analysis
II Early career an dries to power
III Foreign policy
IV Powerful friends
V Separating church and state
VI Socialist threat
VII Political decline
VIII Creating a virtual dictatorship
IX a change of mind