BEST IELTS Academic Reading Test 34
ACADEMIC READING TEST 34 – PASSAGE – 1
ACADEMIC READING TEST 34
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-14 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below
An automobile or motor car is a wheeled motor vehicle for transporting passengers; which also carries its own engine or motor. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods. However, the term is far from precise because there are many types of vehicles that do similar tasks.
Automobile comes via the French language, from the Greek language by combining auto [self] with mobilis (moving); meaning a vehicle that moves itself, rather than being pulled or pushed by a separate animal or another vehicle. The alternative name car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum (wheeled vehicle], or the Middle English word carre (from Old North French), and karros; a Gallic wagon.As of 2002, there were 590 million passenger cars worldwide (roughly one car per eleven people).
Although Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is often credited with building the firstself-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769 by adapting an existing horse-drawn vehicle, this claim is disputed by some, who doubt Cugnot’s three-wheeler ever ran or was stable. Others claim Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built the first steam-powered vehicle around 1672 which was of small scale and designed as a toy for the Chinese Emperor that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger, but quite possibly, was the first working steam- powered vehicle (‘auto-mobile’). What is not in doubt is that Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive in 1801, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle although it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods, and would have been of little practical use.
In Russia in the 1780s Ivan Kulibin started working on a human- pedalled carriage with s steam engine. He finished working on it in 1791. Some of its features included a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing, which are also the features of a modern automobile. His design had three wheels. Unfortunately, like for many of his inventions, the government failed to see the potential market and it was not developed further
François Isaac de Rivaz, a Swiss inventor, designed the first internal combustion engine, in 1806, which was fueled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and used it to develop the world’s first vehicle, albeit rudimentary, to be powered by such an engine. The design was not very successful, as was the case with those of Samuel Brown, Samuel Morey, and Etienne Lenoir who each produced vehicles (adapted carriages, carts, or boats) powered by clumsy internal combustion engines.
In November 1881 French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile that was powered by electricity. This was at the International Exhibition of Electricity in Paris.
Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler,Wilhelm Maybach, and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile.
An automobile powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine was built in Mannheim, Germany by Karl Benz in 1885 and granted a patent in January of the following year under the auspices of his major company, Benz & Cie., which was founded in 1883. It was an integral design, without the adaptation of other existing components and including several new technological elements to create a new concept this is what made and worthy of a patent. He began to sell his production vehicles in 1888
In 1879 Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, which had been designed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle.
His first Motorwagon was built in 1885 and he was awarded the patent for its invention as of his application on January 29, 1886. Benz began promotion of the vehicle on July 3, 1886 and approximately 25 Benz vehicles were sold between 1888 and 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced along with a model intended for affordability. They also were powered with four stroke engines of his own design. Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. Because France was more open to the early automobiles, initially more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany.
In 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine, called a boxermotor in German. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899 and because of its size, Benz &Cie., became a joint-stock company.
Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (Daimler Motor Company, DMG) in Cannstatt in 1890 and under the brand name,Daimler, sold their first automobile in 1892, which was a horse-drawn stagecoach built by another manufacturer, that they retrofitted with an engine of their design. By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler and Maybach, either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann, where they set up shop after falling out with their backers.Benz and the Maybach and Daimler team seem to have been unaware of each other’s early work. They never worked together because by the time of the merger of the two companies, Daimler and Maybach were no longer part of DMG.
Daimler died in 1900 and later that year, Maybach designed an engine named Daimler-Mercedes, that was placed in a specially-ordered model built to specifications set by Emil Jellinek. This was a production of a small number of vehicles for Jellinek to race and market in his country.Two years later, in 1902, a new model DMG automobile was produced and the model was named Mercedes after the Maybach engine which generated 35 hp. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business of his own. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers.
Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz & Cie. When economic conditions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War, but the directors of DMG refused to consider it initially,Negotiations between the two companies resumed several years later when these conditions worsened and, in 1924 they signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest, valid until the year 2000. Both enterprises standardized design, production, purchasing, and sales and they advertised or marketed their automobile models jointly – although keeping their respective brands.
On June 28, 1926, Benz & Cie. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler- Benz company, baptizing all of its automobiles Mercedes Benz as a brand honoring the most important model of the DMG automobiles, the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Mercedes-35hp, along with the Benz name. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his death in 1929 and at times, his two sons participated in the management of the company as well.
From the list of headings below, choose the most suitable headings for Sections A-F.
Write the appropriate numbers i-viii in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.
1. Paragraph A
2. Paragraph B
3. Paragraph C
4. Paragraph D
5. Paragraph E
6. Paragraph F
List of Headings
i. Karl Benz’s success
ii Standard design
iii. Maybach quit DMG
iv. What is an automobile?
v. Failure of combustion engine
vi. Benz & cie, joint stock company
vii. History of first vehicle
viii. Unification of two standards.
ix. Nicolas Joseph cugnot
x. Story of DMG
xi. Mercedes and Karl Benz
xii. Vehicle with four wheels
Do the following statements agree with the information in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 7-12 on your answer sheet write
YES – if the statement agrees with the information
NO – if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN – if there is no information on this in the passages
7. According to French and Greek languages auto mobile means self moving vehicle.
8. In 2002, eleven people could sit in a car.
9. First steam powered vehicle was invented in 1769.
10. Ivan kulibin’s work as approved by Government.
11. Combustion engine by rivaz was fueled by hydrogen and oxygen
12. Engine developed by Karl Benz is still in use.
CHOOSE the appropriate Letter A-D and write it in boxes 13-14 on you answer sheet.
13. Automobile means
(a) pulling machine
(b) Vehicle with four wheels
(c) Self start machine
(d) Vehicle that moves itself
14. Choose the best title for passage
(a) Meaning of vehicle
(b) History of automobiles
(c) Development of Automobile
(d) First self moving machine
8. Not given
12. Not given