BEST IELTS Academic Reading Test 36
ACADEMIC READING TEST 36 – PASSAGE – 3
ACADEMIC READING TEST 36
READING PASSAGE – 3
You should spend about 20 minutes in questions 27-40 which are based on reading passage
A Refrigerator (often called a “fridge” for short) is a cooling appliance comprising a thermally insulated compartment and a mechanism to transfer heat from it to the external environment, cooling the contents to a temperature below ambient. Refrigerators are extensively used to store foods which deteriorate at ambient temperatures; spoilage from bacterial growth and other process is much slower at low temperature. A device describes as a “refrigerator” maintains a temperature a few degree above the freezing point of water; a similar device which maintains a temperature below the freezing point of the water is called a “freezer”. The refrigerator is a relatively modern invention among kitchen appliances. It replaced the ice box and the icemaker, which had been a common household appliance for almost a century and a half prior. For this reason, a refrigerator is sometimes referred to as an “icebox”. Freezer keeps their contents frozen. They are used both in households and for commercial use. Most freezers operate around minus 18 0C (0 0f). Domestic freezers can be included as a compartment in a refrigerator, sharing the same mechanism or with a separate mechanism, or can be standalone, or chests, resembling upright units laid on their backs. Many modern freezers come with an icemaker.
Commercial fridge and freezer units, which go by many other names, were in use for almost 40 years prior to the common home models. They used toxic ammonia gas systems, making them unsafe for home use. Practical household refrigerator were introduced in 1915 and gained wider acceptance in the United States in the 1930s as prices fell and non-toxic, non-flammable synthetic refrigerants such as Freon or R -12 were introduced. It is notable that while 60% of households in the US owned a refrigerator by the 1930s, it was not until 40 years later, in the 1970s, that the refrigerator achieved a similar level of penetration in the United Kingdom.
Before the invention of the refrigerator, icehouses were used to provide cool storage for most of the year. Placed near freshwater lakes or packed with snow and ice during the winter, they were once very common. Using the environment to cool foodstuffs is still common today. On mountainside, run off from melting snow higher up is a convenient way to cool drinks, and during the winter months simply placing one’s milk outside one’s window is sufficient to greatly extend its useful life.
The first known artificial refrigeration was demonstrated by William Cullen at the University of Glasgow in 1748. Between 1805, when Oliver Evans designed the first refrigeration machine that used vapor instead of liquid, and 1902 when Willis Haviland Carrier demonstrated the first air conditioner, scores of inventors contributed many small advances in cooling machinery in 1850 or 1851, Dr. John Gorrie demonstrated an ice maker in 1857, Australian James Harrison introduced vapor-compression refrigeration to the brewing and meat packing industries. Ferdinand Carre of France developed a somewhat more complex system in 1859. Unlike earlier compression-compression machines, which used air as a coolant, Carre’s equipment contained rapidly expanding ammonia. The absorption refrigerator was invented by Baltzar von Platen and Carl Munters in 1922, while they were still students at the Royal institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. It became a worldwide success and was commercialized by Electrolux. Other pioneers included Charles Tellier, David Boyle, and Raoul Pictet.
At the start of 20th century, about half of households in the United States relied on melting ice (and an icebox) to keep food cold, while the remaining half had no cooled storage at all. The ice used for household storage was expensive because ice had to be cut from winter ponds (or mechanically produced), stored centrally until needed, and delivered regularly.
In a few exceptional cases, mechanical refrigeration systems had been adapted by the start of the 20th century for use in the homes of the very wealthy, and might be used for cooling both living and food storage areas. One early system was installed at the mansion of Walter Pierce, an oil company executive.
Marcel Audiffren of France championed the idea of a refrigerating machine for cooling and preserving foods at home. His U.S patents, issued in 1895 and 1908, were purchased bt the American Audiffren Refrigerating Machine Company machines based on Audiffren’s Sulfur dioxide process were manufactured by general Electric in front Wayne, Indian a and marketed by the John-Manville company. The first unit was sold in 1911. Audiffren machines were expensive, selling for about twice as much as an auto mobile cost at the time.
General Electric sought to develop refrigerators of its Own, in 1915 the first Guardian unit was assembled in a back yard wash house as a predecessor to the Frigidaire. In 1916 Kelvinator and servel came out with two units among a field of competing models. Te number increased to 200 by 1920. In 1918, Kelvinator had a model with automatic with controls.
These home units usually required the installation of the mechanical parts, motor, and compressor, in the basement or an adjacent room while the cold box was located in the kitchen. There was a 1922 model that consisted of a wooden cold box, water-cooled compressor, an ice cube tray and a 9 cubic foot compartment for $714.(A 1922 Model-T ford cost about $450.) in 1923 frigidaire introduced the first self-contained unit. About this same time porcelain covered metal cabinets began to appear. Ice cube trays were introduced more and more during the 1920s; up to this time freezing was not a function of the modern refrigerator.
Do the following statements agree with the information in reading passage?
In boxes 27-34 on your answer sheet write:-
YES – if the statement agrees with the information
NO – if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN – if there is no information on this on the passages.
27. Refrigerator has a thermally insulated compartment with mechanism to transfer heat to internal environment.
28. Growth of some bacteria depends upon the temperature around them.
29. “freeze” is a device which can maintain temperature below freezing point of water.
30. one of the compartments in a refrigerator can be domestic freeze.
31. Commercial fridge was harmful for home use.
32. in 1970’s refrigerator was used in most parts of world.
33. Icehouses are still in use.
34. Concept of refrigeration was explained in 1805.
Fill in the blanks. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
35. Design of ………..could use vapour instead of liquid.
36. Ferdinand carre’s design was based on………….of ammonia.
37. ………….system was adopted in the start of 20th century.
38. General electric in fort Wayne manufactured machine based on Audiffren’s……………… .
39. Wooden cold box model was given in………………….. .
40. Upto 1920’s freezing was not related to………………………… .
ANSWERS ARE BELOW
28. Not given
32. Not given
33. Not given
35. Oliver Evans
36. repid expending
37. mechanical refrigeration
38. Sulpher dioxide
40. Modern refrigerator.
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